Glass Tempering handbook

Mr Jonathan Barr is a qualified Electrical Engineer and worked for 20 years with Glasstech as their Electrical Engineer being involved with trouble-shooting tempering systems around the world. Jonathan retired from Glasstech as General Manager in 2003 and continued to travel extensively as an independent consultant on glass tempering systems..
He was initially trained by the RAF as an electronic systems engineer on aircraft automatic flight controls.
He served 25 years and for 4 years was stationed by the RAF at Smiths Industries to work on the world’s first commercial automatic landing system. Later he was the Engineering Officer on a missile site in Germany and as a result of work he carried out there he was posted to a research establishment working with civilian scientists on the Rapier missile system.
The information in this book is a result of his observation, analysis and diagnosis of the tempering
problems he has seen in the last 30 years.

Here we bring his book:Glass Tempering handbook to offer training for glass tempering operators.

Download the GLASS TEMPERING HANDBOOK-52.4mb

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Table of Contents
Forward……………………………………………………………………………………………………2
About the Author…………………………………………………………………………………..5
Introduction to Thermally Tempering Glass……………………………………………………………….5
Brief History of Tempered Glass…………………………………………………………………..5
Glass: Basic Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………6
Understanding Glass…………………………………………………………………………………………….7
Manufacture of Glass………………………………………………………………………………………….7
Tin Bath……………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
Properties of Expansion and Viscosity of Glass with Increasing Temperature………………………..9
Strain and Stress……………………………………………………………………………………………….9
Properties of Glass above the Transition Temperature………………………………………………..11
Viscosity……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
Strength of Tempered Glass………………………………………………………………………………..13
Importance of Raw Glass Quality…………………………………………………………………………..14
Low Emissivity Coated Glass…………………………………………………………….14
Cutting……………………………………………………………………………………………………….15
Edge Working………………………………………………………………………………………………15
The Tempering Process…………………………………………………………………………..16
The Importance of a Trained Operator………………………………………………………..17
Heating The Glass…………………………………………………………………………….17
What is Happening to the Glass as it is Heated………………………………………………………18
Energy absorption…………………………………………………………………………………………….18
Stress in glass during Heating & Quenching……………………………………………………………19
Why the glass is bigger if tempered once………………………………………………………….22
Why the glass is smaller if tempered a second time…………………………………………..22
Problems with obtaining uniform heating…………………………………………………….23
Forced Air Convection…………………………………………………………………………………………25
Problems heating thick glass………………………………………………………………………………27
Problems with Quenching the Glass……………………………………………………………………….28
Different Types of Quench Characteristics……………………………………………………………..29
Development of Stress in the Glass……………………………………………………………..30
Failure of Tempered Glass……………………………………………………………………………..31
Test Breaking a Tempered Glass………………………………………………………………..32
Heat Strengthened Glass and Fire Rated Glass……………………………………………..34
Glass Marking……………………………………………………………………………..35
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Gas…………………………………………………………………………35
Nickel Sulfide Particles (NiS)……………………………………………………………………………….35
Heat Soaking Tempered Glass (EN 14179)……………………………………………………………36
Glass Distortion due to Process Conditions………………………………………………………………36
Roll Wave & End-kink……………………………………………………………………………………36
Bowed Glass (Stable)……………………………………………………………………………………37
‘S’ Shaped Bow……………………………………………………………………………………………37
Bowed Glass (Unstable)…………………………………………………………………………………..38
Good Quality Glass………………………………………………………………………………………..38
Automotive Tempered Glass……………………………………………………………………………..39
Iridescence in Tempered Glass………………………………………………………………………..40
Drilled Holes in Glass…………………………………………………………………………………41
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………….41
Appendix A: Effect of Glass Load on an Oscillator Type Furnace……………………………….42
Appendix B: Quench Characteristics……………………………………………………………….44
Appendix C: Critical Mechanical Set-up of the Tempering System………………………………47
Appendix D: Recommended Additional Equipment…………………………….       …………….49
Appendix E: Soda-Lime-Silica Float Glass Properties……………………………………………….51

Appendix E Simple Spreadsheet for Calculating Time to Heat Glass………………………………52

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